SA blockade 1 degree 1 type or other types exist?
author: cardiologist Merter M.V.
One of the frequent violations of the impulse is the so-called sinoatrial, or CA blockade. It should be noted that CA blockade occurs in 0.17 - 2.4% of the population, more often in protection after 55 - 60 years and somewhat more often in women than men.
CA-blockade 1 degree is not of type 1 or any other subtypes. Types differ only in CA 2 degree. So, the sinoatrial blockade occurs due to the inability of the sinus angle to perform atrial stimulation. CA blockade - this phenomenon is the slowing (or periodic termination) of the spreading to the atrium of the pulses produced in the sinoatrial node. In this case, the region in which the locus of disturbance of the excitation impulses is located, is localized between the myocardium of the atria and the sinoatrial node.
At present, there are 3 degrees of sinoatrial blockade, however, only CA of II and III blockade can be reliably recorded on the ECG, where there are episodes of complete stopping of one (or several consecutive) sinus pulses at the atrium.
Etiology of CA blockade of the first degree
·· organic atrial damage:
acute myocardial infarction;
- Chronic ischemic heart disease, especially in the presence of a lesion of the right coronary artery and subsequent posterior myocardial infarction;
- Acute myocarditis of different etiology or myocarditis cardiosclerosis;
- congenital cardiomegaly;
- hypertonic disease;
- defects of MK and AK;
· Overdose with such medicines as:
- cardiac glycosides;
- calcium antagonists;
· · Pronounced tone of the vagus nerve of peripheral or central origin (inflammatory processes, tumors or pathology of the cerebral vascular genesis);
·· rehabilitation period within 7 to 10 days after electropulse therapy;
· CA of congenital origin, inherited by an autosomal dominant type.
At the moment it is determined that in 25 - 50% of cases of SA blockade of myocardial pathology can not be detected.
Symptoms of CA-blockade of 1 degree
The clinical picture of the disease depends directly on the form of the CA blockade. In the presence of a sinoatrial blockade of the 1st degree, the patient has no complaints, that is, this degree of blockade does not cause any objective changes in the functioning of the cardiovascular system and the general condition of the patient. The clinical picture of conduction disturbance manifests itself in the presence of a sinoatrial block, beginning with the CA of the blockade of the 2nd degree.
When examining the ECG blockade of degree I (there are no types), the pulses produced by the sinus node pass slowly through the sinoatrial connection. Normally, the duration of the CA is 0.04-0.153 (0.092 ± 0.06) s. Thus, due to the fact that when a routine ECG is recorded, the spread of the impulse originating from the sinus node of the node is not fixed in the sinoatrial connection, then the EC blockade of the 1st degree can not be diagnosed according to the ECG data. It should be noted that this blockade can only be diagnosed if it is combined with a second degree SA blockade. In this case, the interval P - P between the most near sinus pulses that covers the blocking location will not be equal to the interval P - P of 2 normal sinus pulses, but will be shorter than this interval.
Treatment of sinoatrial blockade of 1 degree
The tactics of treatment directly depends on the presence and nature of the patient's disease, as well as the dynamics of the clinical course of the SA blockade of the 1st degree. Partial short-term blockade does not require treatment, but it should be noted that if the cause of its occurrence is the effects of drugs, then stop using them. If the occurrence of a repetitive sinoatrial block is due to the increased tone of the vagus nerve, then atropine or sympathomimetic injections (such as ephedrine, orciprepalin, isoprenaline) can be used for treatment. If a blockade occurs on the background of repeated attacks of loss of consciousness or even, perhaps, episodes of clinical death, electrostimulation of the heart is necessary. In this case, ventricular stimulation of the heart should be used, as often combined cardiac conduction disorders are detected.
The prognosis of this pathological process depends on the etiologic factor, duration, degree of CA blockade, functioning of the cardiovascular system of the patient and the presence of a combination of cardiac arrhythmias.
John Gee: In example 2.0 there is a critical mistake. The null hypothesis MUST ALWAYS contain some the equality. Therefore the null and the alternative in example 2.0 should be flipped. This would make you lose some points on your tests and might confuse everyone. Nice video otherwise but this makes me question everything else I've seen in the video.
Francis K. Cooper: Nice! Let say we do not want to say ACCEPT the Null hypothesis because there may be an error. So we say, we FAILED TO REJECT the null hypothesis.
MisterBinx: So we are only trying to falsify the null hypothesis. If we can't then we accept the null hypothesis.
007Sunny: I love the video and explaination. Team leader Mr. X claims that the average output of his team is 900 pages per day. To check his claim 50 employees are selected at random and the average output is found at 854 pages with the standard deviation of 42 pages. a. Construct the null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis for the given problem. b. Is the claim of Mr. X true at 5% level of significance? Construct 95% confidence interval for the sample mean.
Chicken Nugget: So... Can the null hypothesis be "the mean data salary is less than 125,000" and the alternative hypothesis "the mean data salary is more than or equal to 125,000"???
Humera Ishaq: I want to ask one question, shouldn't the null hypothesis be only with equal to sign. As i have read in many books that NUll hypothesis is A=B, where as alternative hypothesis could be A not equal to B for two tailed and A>B or A<B for one tailed? Is this concept wrong?
Humera Ishaq: Kindly help me with the concept of degree of freedom. Not simply n-1 or f-1. What is the basic concept of it. In your style. Please
author: doctor Tatintsyan VA
Atrioventricular blockade of degree II or cardiac blockade of grade II is characterized by impaired, delayed or interrupted atrial pulse transmission through the atrioventricular node to the ventricles.
author: neurosurgeon Markelov G.V.
Osteochondrosis, as well as some other diseases, can cause acute or chronic pain in the spine and in other parts of the body innervated by the affected nerves. The need for early relief of the pain syndrome is recognized by all doctors, but since this does not solve the nature of the problem, sometimes this principle is questioned by the patients themselves, who, especially if the pain has become chronic, prefer to endure and achieve a more distant but lasting effect.
author: doctor Pyataeva Margarita
When we get cold with endless sneezing and coughing, almost everyone knows how to act. Someone makes a lime blossom by grandmother's recipe, and someone goes to the pharmacy for the usual paracetamol or a brand new miracle drug. However, many ordinary people are completely lost when the heart is at the sight of an ailment.
author: doctor Kovyarova L.S.
To treat the pain syndrome, neurologists often appoint a blockade, some kind of medication. This method of treatment refers to young enough compared to others, for example, massage, manual therapy, acupuncture, surgical methods.
Blockade aims to get rid of the very pain and its causes, using the minimum amount of time, resources and forces.
author: cardiologist Merter M.V.
Incomplete blockade of the right leg of the bundle of His (abbreviated as NBPPG) is a partial violation of the patency of the electric pulse through the right leg of the bundle.
author: cardiologist Makarenkova T.Yu.
The blockade of the right bundle of the bundle is a pathological abnormality in the work of the conduction system of the heart, in which the electrical impulse going from the atrioventricular node to the right ventricle is slowed or absent. There are complete and partial blockade of the right leg of the village of Gis.
Author: ambulance doctor Deryushev A.N.
Arrhythmia is the wrong rhythm of the heart, which can be too fast - more than eighty beats per minute (tachycardia) or too slow - less than sixty beats per minute (bradycardia).
author: doctor Subbota AA
The bundle of the Hyis is a system that provides the delivery of an electrical impulse to the cells of the heart, as a result of which these cells contract. The correct operation of all structures of the bundle of the Hyis provides an organized reduction of all cardiac cells, and the heart contracts as a solid organ.